Woo Young Im is working at Konyang University and Yonsei University, South Korea.
Introduction & Objective: It is known that many of the cognitive and social deficits associated with autism can arise from abnormal functional connectivity between brain networks. This aberrant functional connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can be explained by impaired integrity of white matter tracts that link distant regions of the networks. Method: In the present study we investigated white matter in children and adolescents with High-Function Autism (HPA) compared to normal controls using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of this research is to provide supporting evidence for abnormalities in neural connectivity as an underlying pathophysiology of the main characteristics of ASD. DTI was used to examine brain activations in 9 children with HPA and 13 typically developing controls. Results: We found impairment of neural connectivity, mainly in association fiber tracts, in individuals with high-function autism as evidenced by decreased Fractional Anisotropy (FA), the index of white matter integrity, of these tracts. Among them, Inferior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus (IFOF), which connects the social brain, had a significant relationship with various domains such as social interaction, communication, repetitive behavior, verbal Intelligence Quotient (IQ), performance IQ, and functional IQ. The Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) also showed decreased FA in individuals with HFA. FA of ILF and SLF had negative correlations with scores of social interaction and repetitive behaviors and positive correlations with IQ. Conclusion: These findings suggest that widespread abnormalities in association fiber tracts may contribute to both core and associated symptoms of ASD.
Nataliya Huseva is currently working at Belarusian State Medical University, Belarus.
Objective: To establish the histological and morphometric features of the human cerebral arterial circle as significant for cerebral circulation disorders development. Methods: The places of Willis circle vessels bifurcation were studied on 120 human brain preparations after staining with hematoxylin and eosin, Van-Gizon, orcein by Uann-Terzen, Sudan and with immunohistochemistry. Results: Reconstruction of cerebral vessels walls was determined inner layer growth (intimate thickenings), gradual thinning the middle layer till complete disappearance (p<0.05). The intimate thickenings growth was represented by 3 periods: (1) Formation (2-21 years); (2) slow growth (22-55 years); and (3) rapid growth (after 56 years). The medial layer in the first period of mature age (22-35 years) thinned by 53%; in the second period (36-55 years) by 59% and in the elderly age (56-74 years) by 79% or it was absent at all, that contribute to protrusion of the apical angle wall. Intimate thickenings were undergone an agerelated reconstruction caused by atherogenesis (appearance of lipid inclusions, moderate expression of Ki-67 protein). Conclusion: The histological and morphological features of human intimal thickenings were revealed. The following periods were distinguished as the crucial for cerebral circulation disorders development: The 1st period (30-35 years) - the medial layer thickness in branching vessel decreased significantly, that might contribute to the aneurysm formation; the 2nd period (after 56 years) - there was a significant increase in the height of intimal thickenings, that could lead to the vascular stenosis.